Added sugars have little if any substantive influence on diet quality Added sugars have little or no substantive influence on diet quality, according to a new study by the guts for Food and Nutrition Policy in Virginia Tech. In the October problem of the Journal of Nutrition Released, the study refutes analyses in the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medication draft record on Dietary References Intakes stating that intake of added sugars ‘displaces’ essential minerals and vitamins in the dietary plan medication list . This ‘nutrient displacement hypothesis’ is being used in component to justify the guidance on carbohydrates in the 2005 Dietary Suggestions released jointly by the Departments of Health and Human Solutions and Agriculture . ‘Because the dietary recommendations are relying heavily on what we believe to be a flawed interpretation of the data by the IOM, our research is an extremely important analysis for the diet community as a whole, and for diet policy particularly,’ said Maureen Storey, director of the guts for Nutrition and Food Policy, who coauthored the study with Richard Forshee, research associate professor at the CFNP. In the CFNP study that was supported partly by an unrestricted gift from the Sugar Association, Inc., Forshee and Storey used the same data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III that the IOM found in its report but used an alternative solution statistical approach. The authors used multiple regression to partition total energy into energy from added energy and sugars from other sources. This approach produced very different outcomes than IOM’s original evaluation. Related StoriesOne night of sleep deficiency and half a year on high-fat diet plan could both impair insulin sensitivityStudy displays how dietary fatty acids affect development and progression of multiple sclerosisSt. Michael's Hospital study finds that cholesterol-reducing diet plan also lowers blood pressure’Whereas the IOM reported that increasing added sugars can lower intakes of some micronutrients, our outcomes showed that the association of energy from added sugars with micronutrient consumption was inconsistent and small,’ Storey said. ‘Energy from other resources had a much stronger and consistent association with micronutrient intake. ‘Our re-analysis of the info affirms that individuals have to consume a balanced and varied diet plan that meets their dietary needs and enables them to maintain a wholesome fat. What our paper actually shows is that the even more calories that folks consume, the more likely they are to obtain the essential minerals and vitamins they need. Which makes it even more vital that you increase physical activity in order that those calories are burned off to prevent weight gain,’ she stated. The Center for Food and Nutrition Policy can be an independent study and education center affiliated with Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and is located in Alexandria, Virginia. The mission of CFNP is definitely to advance rational, science-based food and nutrition plan. Through its study, outreach and teaching programs, CFNP examines complex and contentious problems facing government policymakers frequently, regulators, agribusinesses, and meals manufacturers. CFNP is regarded as a center of excellence in food and nutrition policy by the Food and Agriculture Firm of the United Nations.
Acyclovir will not reduce threat of HIV transmission for people infected with both HIV and HSV-2 A five-season international multi-middle clinical trial has found that acyclovir, a medication trusted as a effective and safe treatment taken twice daily to suppress herpes simplex virus-2 , which is the most common reason behind genital herpes, will not reduce the risk of HIV transmission when taken by people infected with both HIV and HSV-2. The results of the analysis are published in the New England Journal of Medicine online today, and will appear in the Feb. 4, 2010 issue of the publication. Up to 90 percent of people with HIV infection also have HSV-2 infection. Most people who are infected with HSV-2 do not know they have the virus because symptoms can be gentle or absent. HSV-2 illness could cause recurrent sores and breaks in the skin of the genital region, which can be mild and go unnoticed often. HSV-2 contamination attracts immune cells called CD4 T-cells to the genital region also, which HIV uses to determine or pass an infection. Multiple studies show that frequent genital herpes recurrences raise the amount of HIV in the blood and genital tract. The HIV virus is also shed from genital herpes ulcers and individuals with such ulcers transmit HIV to others better. Five preliminary research showed that it’s possible to decrease the amount of HIV in the bloodstream and genital tract through treatment to suppress HSV-2, but these scholarly studies did not measure whether this translated right into a reduction in HIV transmission. Researchers had hoped that acyclovir’s capability to suppress the herpes virus, which causes symptomatic genital sores and breaks in the skin but also regularly is energetic without symptoms, could reduce the probability of sexual transmitting of HIV from a person with HSV-2 and HIV. The analysis is the first to determine whether twice daily usage of acyclovir by folks who are infected with both HSV-2 and HIV reduced the transmission of HIV to their sexual partners. The authors conclude that daily acyclovir therapy didn’t reduce the risk of transmission of HIV, regardless of the actual fact that acyclovir decreased plasma HIV RNA by a – log and the occurrence of genital ulcers because of HSV-2 by 73 percent. Led by the University of Washington in Seattle and funded by the Expenses & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Partners in Avoidance HSV/HIV Transmission Study was conducted among 3,408 African HIV serodiscordant couples, where one partner had HIV and the other did not. In all the couples, the partner who had HIV also had HSV-2 infection. The study occurred at 14 sites in seven countries in eastern and southern Africa . In sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of new HIV infections occur among heterosexual HIV discordant lovers, a lot of whom are in stable partnerships and unaware that one partner offers HIV and the additional will not. Genital herpes is certainly thought to be a aspect in a substantial proportion of fresh HIV attacks in Africa. The scholarly study began recruitment in Nov. 2004 and ended follow-up of participants in Oct. 2008. Results were first announced in May 2009 and were provided at the International AIDS Society meeting in Cape City, South Africa, on 22 July, 2009. In the principal analysis of HIV transmissions dependant on laboratory screening to have happened within the couple and not acquired from another partner, there were 41 infections in the acyclovir arm and 43 in the placebo arm – not a significant difference. Of the partners who were contaminated with HIV, 68 percent had been ladies. Acyclovir suppressive treatment do present significant reductions in the rate of recurrence of genital ulcers and the average quantity of HIV in the blood , compared to the placebo arm. Related StoriesRutgers College of Nursing takes lead in $6 million nationwide effort to avoid brand-new HIV infectionsStudy evaluates efficiency of antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected childrenNew study discovers high prevalence of HIV among pregnant refugee women in Ontario’As is often the case with huge efficacy trials, you figure out how to expect surprises,’ said Dr. Connie Celum, the first choice of the analysis and a UW professor of Global Health and Medicine in the Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. ‘We found that, in spite of a substantial decrease in plasma HIV levels and genital ulcer disease with acyclovir suppressive therapy, there was no decrease in HIV transmission. This is a disappointing selecting, but a critical outcome of this study is the understanding that interventions must attain a bigger decrease in HIV levels to be able to reduce HIV transmission, among persons with high HIV levels especially. This will make a difference in informing potential interventions to reduce HIV infectiousness.’ Celum said the study is a direct assessment of the influence of herpes suppression on HIV transmitting and is the most direct way to see if it’s possible to produce a person much less infectious and less likely to transmit HIV to their partner. Although the primary result of reducing HIV transmitting was not observed, Celum stated the study achieved many significant mile-stones that can help to inform HIV prevention research in several ways. Among they were HIV testing of 55 approximately,000 couples of unfamiliar HIV serostatus, screening greater than 6,500 HIV serodiscordant couples, and enroll-ment of 3,408 couples where the HIV – contaminated partner was dually contaminated with HSV-2 and not qualified to receive antiretroviral therapy, predicated on national suggestions. Adherence to daily acyclovir was high twice, with 88 percent of dosages dispensed , and 96 percent of dispensed doses used, as measured by pill counts. Retention of study participants at two years of follow-up was 92 percent for HIV infected companions and 84 percent for HIV uninfected partners. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study may be the first clinical trial to directly check whether suppressing HSV-2 disease in HIV-infected persons could reduce prices of HIV transmission and HIV disease progression. The study was randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blinded, meaning that both participants and the care providers did not understand which treatment the individuals were receiving. Both treatment and placebo organizations received standard HIV prevention services, which included being given condoms, treated for other transmitted infections sexually, and provided look after HIV infection. All participants received extensive counseling, both and as a few individually, throughout the study period, on how best to reduce the risk of HIV infection. ‘This was an ambitious study, and I applaud our collaborators at the University of Washington, the analysis and investigators teams in Africa, the study participants, and the communities where the study was done, for their dedication over the past five years,’ Celum said. ‘We will continue to learn from this research about risk elements for HIV transmission, which will bear fruit for both the HIV prevention and the vaccine areas for years to come.’.